The hardness of any supply water is determined by the contents of calcium and magnesium compounds, which exists to some degree in all natural waters. The hardness in well water is usually higher than that of surface water. Calcium and magnesium can combine with bicarbonates, sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates to precipitate as solids mineral salts make water more basic and corrosion aggressive on many materials.
Hard water is responsible for the formation of lime scaling in pipes, utensils, water heaters, boilers, HVAC systems, etc., causing inefficiency and sometimes permanent damage. Scale acts as an insulation material, thus lowering heat transmission and often causing premature heater failure due to overheating of the metal.
Cation resin softener water treatment
The Ion Exchange Process Water Softeners remove hardness from water by a process known as ion exchange. The media, called resin; in the softener is charged with sodium (or potassium) ions. When the hardness ions come in contact with the resin beads the hardness ions are collected and the sodium (or potassium) ions are released, thus the term ion exchange. The hardness ions are exchanged for sodium (or potassium) ions. The typical cations found in the raw water are exchanged within the resin bed for sodium or potassium, as shown in the illustration. Normally, when two-thirds of the resin bed is exhausted, the softener will allow hardness to slip through. When this occurs, it is time to regenerate or recharge the resin bed using a salt and water mixture, known as brine. Sodium chloride (NaCl) or potassium chloride (KCl) are normally used for this purpose. Regenerating the resin bed refreshes its ability to exchange ions.
Advantages of Cation resin softener water treatment
Fiberglass reinforced polyester (FRP) pressure vessels for 150 psi working pressure.
High capacity, sulfonated polystyrene cation exchange resin in sodium-form.
Brass, top mounted twin-tank control valve with integral brine injector.
Built-In control valve alternator for continuous soft water supply.
Automatic-reset water meter for volume initiated regeneration.
Self-adjusting flow control to maintain accurate backwash rates.
Internal distribution system for minimal pressure drop and optimal regeneration.
Rigid, polyethylene brine tanks with dry-salt shelf platform and water re-fill valves.